Björn B. Brandenburg

Faculty (tenured)

Real-Time Systems Group

bbb -at- mpi-sws.org

See also: my profile on Google Scholar and my profile on DBLP.

- Y. Ren, G. Liu, G. Parmer, and
**B. Brandenburg**, “Scalable Memory Reclamation for Multi-Core, Real-Time Systems”,*Proceedings of the 24th IEEE Real-Time and Embedded Technology and Applications Symposium (RTAS 2018)*, to appear, April 2018. - M. Nasri, R. Davis, and
**B. Brandenburg**, “FIFO with Offsets: High Schedulability with Low Overheads”,*Proceedings of the 24th IEEE Real-Time and Embedded Technology and Applications Symposium (RTAS 2018)*, to appear, April 2018.

[PDF | companion page] - A. Gujarati, S. Elnikety, Y. He, K. McKinley, and
**B. Brandenburg**, “Swayam: Distributed Autoscaling to Meet SLAs of Machine Learning Inference Services with Resource Efficiency”,*Proceedings of the 18th International Middleware Conference (Middleware 2017)*, pp. 109–120, December 2017.**Best Student Paper Award**.

[PDF | slides] - M. Nasri and
**B. Brandenburg**, “An Exact and Sustainable Analysis of Non-Preemptive Scheduling”,*Proceedings of the 38th IEEE Real-Time Systems Symposium (RTSS 2017)*, pp. 12–23, December 2017.

[PDF | slides | companion page] - A. Gujarati, M. Nasri, and
**B. Brandenburg**, “Lower-Bounding the MTTF for Systems with*(m, k)*Constraints and IID Iteration Failure Probabilities ”,*Proceedings of the 2nd Workshop on Security and Dependability of Critical Embedded Real-Time Systems (CERTS 2017)*, December 2017.

[PDF | slides] - M. Vanga, A. Bastoni, H. Theiling, and
**B. Brandenburg**, “Supporting Low-Latency, Low-Criticality Tasks in a Certified Mixed-Criticality OS”,*Proceedings of the 25th International Conference on Real-Time Networks and Systems (RTNS 2017)*, pp. 226–235, October 2017.

[PDF | slides | companion page] - P. Patel, M. Vanga, and
**B. Brandenburg**, “TimerShield: Protecting High-Priority Tasks from Low-Priority Timer Interference”,*Proceedings of the 23rd IEEE Real-Time and Embedded Technology and Applications Symposium (RTAS 2017)*, pp. 3–12, April 2017.**Best Paper Award**.

*Note: see the companion page for the Linux implementation.*

[PDF | slides | companion page] - M. Nasri and
**B. Brandenburg**, “Offline Equivalence: A Non-Preemptive Scheduling Technique for Resource-Constrained Embedded Real-Time Systems”,*Proceedings of the 23rd IEEE Real-Time and Embedded Technology and Applications Symposium (RTAS 2017)*, pp. 75–86, April 2017.**Outstanding Paper Award**.

*Note: see the companion page for the Arduino implementation.*

[PDF | slides | companion page] - J.-J. Chen, G. Nelissen, W.-H. Huang, M. Yang,
**B. Brandenburg**, K. Bletsas, C. Liu, P. Richard, F. Ridouard, N. Audsley, R. Rajkumar, D. de Niz, and G. von der Brüggen, “Many Suspensions, Many Problems: A Review of Self-Suspending Tasks in Real-Time Systems”, technical report, number 854, 2nd revision, Department of Computer Science, TU Dortmund, March 2017.

[PDF] - J.-J. Chen and
**B. Brandenburg**, “A Note on the Period Enforcer Algorithm for Self-Suspending Tasks”,*Leibniz Transactions on Embedded Systems (LITES)*, Volume 4, Issue 1. Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik, February 2017.

[Open Access at LITES]

**B. Brandenburg**, “Scheduling and Locking in Multiprocessor Real-Time Operating Systems”, under the supervision of James H. Anderson, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 2011.

[PDF | companion page]

**UNC Dean’s Distinguished Dissertation Award 2012**

in the area of Mathematics, Physical Sciences and Engineering

[UNC CS news story]**CGS/ProQuest Distinguished Dissertation Award 2012**

in the area of Mathematics, Physical Sciences and Engineering

[CGS/ProQuest press release | UNC press release]**EDAA Outstanding Dissertations Award 2012**

in the category “New directions in embedded system design and embedded software”

[EDAA press release]

**B. Brandenburg**, “Blocking Optimality in Distributed Real-Time Locking Protocols”,*Leibniz Transactions on Embedded Systems (LITES)*, Volume 1, Issue 2, pp. 1–22. Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik, September 2014.

[Open Access at LITES]- A. Gujarati, F. Cerqueira, and
**B. Brandenburg**, “Multiprocessor Real-Time Scheduling with Arbitrary Processor Affinities: From Practice to Theory”,*Real-Time Systems*, Volume 51, Issue 4, pp. 440–483. Springer Verlag, 2015.

**Note**: we have submitted an erratum concerning Section 4, which is currently under review (since June 2016). In the meantime, please refer to the revised conference version or contact me for details.

[PDF | SpringerLink] **B. Brandenburg**, “An Asymptotically Optimal Real-Time Locking Protocol for Clustered Scheduling under Suspension-Aware Analysis”,*ACM SIGBED Review*, Special Issue on the Work-in-Progress (WiP) session of the 33rd IEEE Real-Time Systems Symposium (RTSS’12), Volume 10, Issue 2, p. 19. ACM, July 2013.

[PDF | slides | ACM]**B. Brandenburg**and J. Anderson, “The OMLP Family of Optimal Multiprocessor Real-Time Locking Protocols”,*Design Automation for Embedded Systems*, special issue on selected papers from the 9th International Conference on Embedded Software (EMSOFT’11), Volume 17, Issue 2, pp. 277–342. Springer, June 2013.

[PDF | SpringerLink]**B. Brandenburg**, H. Leontyev, and J. Anderson, “An Overview of Interrupt Accounting Techniques for Multiprocessor Real-Time Systems”,*Journal of Systems Architecture*, special issue on selected papers from the 15th IEEE International Conference on Embedded and Real-Time Computing Systems and Applications (RTCSA 2009), Volume 57, Issue 6, pp. 638–654. Elsevier, June 2011.

[PDF | ScienceDirect]**B. Brandenburg**and J. Anderson, “Spin-Based Reader-Writer Synchronization for Multiprocessor Real-Time Systems”,*Real-Time Systems*, special issue on selected papers from the 21st Euromicro Conference on Real-Time Systems, Volume 46, Issue 1, pp. 25–87. Springer Netherlands, September 2010.

[PDF | SpringerLink]

- A. Biondi,
**B. Brandenburg**, and A. Wieder, “A Blocking Bound for Nested FIFO Spin Locks”,*Proceedings of the 37th IEEE Real-Time Systems Symposium (RTSS 2016)*, pp. 291–302, December 2016.

[PDF | PDF (extended version) | companion page | slides] **B. Brandenburg**and M. Gül, “Global Scheduling Not Required: Simple, Near-Optimal Multiprocessor Real-Time Scheduling with Semi-Partitioned Reservations”,*Proceedings of the 37th IEEE Real-Time Systems Symposium (RTSS 2016)*, pp. 99–110, December 2016.**Best Paper Award**.

*Note: the companion page provides all code, data, and graphs, as well as detailed artifact evaluation instructions.*

[PDF | companion page | slides]- F. Cerqueira, F. Stutz, and
**B. Brandenburg**, “Prosa: A Case for Readable Mechanized Schedulability Analysis”,*Proceedings of the 28th Euromicro Conference on Real-Time Systems (ECRTS 2016)*, pp. 273–284, July 2016.**Best Paper Award**.

[PDF | project | artifact evaluation | slides] - A. Biondi and
**B. Brandenburg**, “Lightweight Real-Time Synchronization under P-EDF on Symmetric and Asymmetric Multiprocessors”,*Proceedings of the 28th Euromicro Conference on Real-Time Systems (ECRTS 2016)*, pp. 39–49, July 2016.

[PDF | PDF (full version) | artifact evaluation | slides] - V. Bonifaci,
**B. Brandenburg**, G. D’Angelo, and A. Marchetti-Spaccamela, “Multiprocessor Real-Time Scheduling with Hierarchical Processor Affinities”,*Proceedings of the 28th Euromicro Conference on Real-Time Systems (ECRTS 2016)*, pp. 237–247, July 2016.

[PDF | artifact evaluation | slides] - M. Yang, A. Wieder, and
**B. Brandenburg**, “Global Real-Time Semaphore Protocols: A Survey, Unified Analysis, and Comparison”,*Proceedings of the 36th IEEE Real-Time Systems Symposium (RTSS 2015)*, pp. 1–12, December 2015.

[PDF | PDF (extended version) | complete data set | complete data set (ZIP) | slides] - A. Gujarati and
**B. Brandenburg**, “When is CAN the Weakest Link? A Bound on Failures-In-Time in CAN-Based Real-Time Systems”,*Proceedings of the 36th IEEE Real-Time Systems Symposium (RTSS 2015)*, pp. 249–260, December 2015.

[PDF | slides] - P. Bhatotia, P. Fonseca, U. Acar,
**B. Brandenburg**, and R. Rodrigues, “iThreads: A Threading Library for Parallel Incremental Computation”,*Proceedings of the 20th International Conference on Architectural Support for Programming Languages and Operating Systems (ASPLOS 2015)*, pp. 645–659, March 2015. [PDF (via ACM Authorizer) | ACM] - F. Cerqueira, A. Gujarati, and
**B. Brandenburg**, “Linux’s Processor Affinity API, Refined: Shifting Real-Time Tasks towards Higher Schedulability”,*Proceedings of the 35th IEEE Real-Time Systems Symposium (RTSS 2014)*, pp. 249–259, December 2014.

[PDF | slides] - A. Wieder and
**B. Brandenburg**, “On the Complexity of Worst-Case Blocking Analysis of Nested Critical Sections”,*Proceedings of the 35th IEEE Real-Time Systems Symposium (RTSS 2014)*, pp. 106–117, December 2014.

[PDF | slides] **B. Brandenburg**, “A Synchronous IPC Protocol for Predictable Access to Shared Resources in Mixed-Criticality Systems”,*Proceedings of the 35th IEEE Real-Time Systems Symposium (RTSS 2014)*, pp. 196–206, December 2014.

[PDF | slides]- R. Spliet, M. Vanga,
**B. Brandenburg**, and S. Dziadek, “Fast on Average, Predictable in the Worst Case: Exploring Real-Time Futexes in LITMUS^{RT}”,*Proceedings of the 35th IEEE Real-Time Systems Symposium (RTSS 2014)*, pp. 96–105, December 2014.

[PDF | slides] - P. Fonseca, R. Rodrigues, and
**B. Brandenburg**, “SKI: Exposing Kernel Concurrency Bugs through Systematic Schedule Exploration”,*Proceedings of the 11th USENIX Symposium on Operating Systems Design and Implementation (OSDI’14)*, pp. 415–431, October 2014.

[PDF | slides | video] **B. Brandenburg**, “The FMLP^{+}: An Asymptotically Optimal Real-Time Locking Protocol for Suspension-Aware Analysis”,*Proceedings of the 26th Euromicro Conference on Real-Time Systems (ECRTS 2014)*, pp. 61–71, July 2014.

[PDF | PDF (extended version) | ZIP (all graphs) | slides]- F. Cerqueira, M. Vanga, and
**B. Brandenburg**, “Scaling Global Scheduling with Message Passing”,*Proceedings of the 20th IEEE Real-Time and Embedded Technology and Applications Symposium (RTAS 2014)*, pp. 263–274, April 2014.

The extended version contains all overhead measurements and the complete set of schedulability results.

[PDF | PDF (extended version) | slides] - S. Baruah and
**B. Brandenburg**, “Multiprocessor feasibility analysis of recurrent task systems with specified processor affinities”,*Proceedings of the 34th IEEE Real-Time Systems Symposium (RTSS 2013)*, pp. 160–169, December 2013.

[PDF | slides] - A. Wieder and
**B. Brandenburg**, “On Spin Locks in AUTOSAR: Blocking Analysis of FIFO, Unordered, and Priority-Ordered Spin Locks”,*Proceedings of the 34th IEEE Real-Time Systems Symposium (RTSS 2013)*, pp. 45–56, December 2013.

The extended version contains the analysis of all lock types, analysis refinements, and all graphs (300+ pages,_{30}MB).

[PDF | PDF (extended version) | slides] - A. Gujarati, F. Cerqueira, and
**B. Brandenburg**, “Schedulability Analysis of the Linux Push and Pull Scheduler with Arbitrary Processor Affinities”,*Proceedings of the 25th Euromicro Conference on Real-Time Systems (ECRTS 2013)*, pp. 69–79, July 2013.**Outstanding Paper Award**.

**Erratum**: the paper has been revised to account for issues in Lemmas 2 and 4 in Section IV of the original ECRTS 2013 paper. A detailed erratum is provided in Appendix A of the revised paper.

[PDF (revision 1)] **B. Brandenburg**, “A Fully Preemptive Multiprocessor Semaphore Protocol for Latency-Sensitive Real-Time Applications”,*Proceedings of the 25th Euromicro Conference on Real-Time Systems (ECRTS 2013)*, pp. 292–302, July 2013.

[PDF | PDF (extended version) | slides]- F. Cerqueira and
**B. Brandenburg**, “A Comparison of Scheduling Latency in Linux, PREEMPT-RT, and LITMUS^{RT}”,*Proceedings of the 9th Annual Workshop on Operating Systems Platforms for Embedded Real-Time applications (OSPERT 2013)*, pp. 19–29, July 2013. Invited paper.

The slides include additional graphs comparing Linux 3.8.13 with and without the “threadirqs” option enabled.

[PDF | slides | proceedings] - A. Wieder and
**B. Brandenburg**, “Efficient Partitioning of Sporadic Real-Time Tasks with Shared Resources and Spin Locks”,*Proceedings of the 8th IEEE International Symposium on Industrial Embedded Systems (SIES 2013)*, pp. 49–58, June 2013.**Best Paper Award**.

[PDF | IEEE | slides] **B. Brandenburg**, “Improved Analysis and Evaluation of Real-Time Semaphore Protocols for P-FP Scheduling”,*Proceedings of the 19th IEEE Real-Time and Embedded Technology and Applications Symposium (RTAS 2013)*, pp. 141–152. IEEE, April 2013.

[PDF | PDF (extended version) | IEEE | ACM | slides]- C. Kenna, J. Herman,
**B. Brandenburg**, A. Mills, and J. Anderson, “Soft Real-Time on Multiprocessors: Are Analysis-Based Schedulers Really Worth It?”,*Proceedings of the 32nd IEEE Real-Time Systems Symposium (RTSS 2011)*, pp. 93–103. IEEE, December 2011.

[PDF | IEEE] **B. Brandenburg**and J. Anderson, “Real-Time Resource-Sharing under Clustered Scheduling: Mutex, Reader-Writer, and k-Exclusion Locks”,*Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Embedded Software (EMSOFT 2011)*, pp. 69–78. ACM, October 2011.**Best Paper award**.

The conference version discusses two sample graphs; the appendix includes all graphs.

[PDF | PDF (with appendix) | IEEE | ACM]- A. Bastoni,
**B. Brandenburg**, and J. Anderson, “Is Semi-Partitioned Scheduling Practical?”,*Proceedings of the 23rd Euromicro Conference on Real-Time Systems (ECRTS 2011)*, pp. 125–135. IEEE, July 2011. The full version contains all graphs (over 2000 of them).

[PDF | PDF (full version) | IEEE | ACM] **B. Brandenburg**and J. Anderson, “Optimality Results for Multiprocessor Real-Time Locking”,*Proceedings of the 31st IEEE Real-Time Systems Symposium (RTSS 2010)*, pp. 49–60. IEEE, December 2010.**Best Student Paper award**.

[PDF | IEEE | ACM]- A. Bastoni,
**B. Brandenburg**, and J. Anderson, “An Empirical Comparison of Global, Partitioned, and Clustered Multiprocessor EDF Schedulers”,*Proceedings of the 31st IEEE Real-Time Systems Symposium (RTSS 2010)*, pp. 14–24. IEEE, December 2010.

[PDF | IEEE | ACM] - A. Bastoni,
**B. Brandenburg**, and J. Anderson, “Cache-Related Preemption and Migration Delays: Empirical Approximation and Impact on Schedulability”,*Proceedings of the Sixth International Workshop on Operating Systems Platforms for Embedded Real-Time Applications (OSPERT 2010)*, pp. 33–44, July 2010.

[PDF | Proceedings] **B. Brandenburg**and J. Anderson, “On the Implementation of Global Real-Time Schedulers”,*Proceedings of the 30th IEEE Real-Time Systems Symposium (RTSS 2009)*, pp. 214–224. IEEE, December 2009.

Note: The extended version of the paper contains all data and graphs.

[PDF | PDF (extended) | IEEE | ACM]**B. Brandenburg**, H. Leontyev, and J. Anderson, “Accounting for Interrupts in Multiprocessor Real-Time Systems”,*Proceedings of the 15th IEEE International Conference on Embedded and Real-Time Computing Systems and Applications (RTCSA 2009)*, pp. 273–283. IEEE, August 2009.

[PDF | IEEE | ACM]**B. Brandenburg**and J. Anderson, “Reader-Writer Synchronization for Shared-Memory Multiprocessor Real-Time Systems”,*Proceedings of the 21st Euromicro Conference on Real-Time Systems (ECRTS 2009)*, pp. 184–193. IEEE, July 2009.

Note: The extended version of the paper contains the blocking term analysis and a 32-bit phase-fair reader-writer lock implementation.

[PDF | PDF (extended) | IEEE | ACM]- M. Mollison,
**B. Brandenburg**, and J. Anderson, “Towards Unit Testing Real-Time Schedulers in LITMUS^{RT}”,*Proceedings of the Fifth International Workshop on Operating Systems Platforms for Embedded Real-Time Applications (OSPERT 2009)*, pp. 33–39. Politécnico do Porto, July 2009.

[PDF | Proceedings] - J. Anderson, S. Baruah, and
**B. Brandenburg**, “Multicore Operating-System Support for Mixed Criticality”,*Proceedings of the Workshop on Mixed Criticality: Roadmap to Evolving UAV Certification (part of CPS Week 2009)*. April 2009.

[PDF | Program] **B. Brandenburg**and J. Anderson, “A Comparison of the M-PCP, D-PCP, and FMLP on LITMUS^{RT}”,*Proceedings of the 12th International Conference On Principles Of Distributed Systems (OPODIS 2008)*, Lecture Notes in Computer Science 5401, pp. 105–124. Springer-Verlag, December 2008.

[PDF | SpringerLink | ACM]**B. Brandenburg**, J. Calandrino, and J. Anderson, “On the Scalability of Real-Time Scheduling Algorithms on Multicore Platforms: A Case Study”,*Proceedings of the 29th IEEE Real-Time Systems Symposium (RTSS 2008)*, pp. 157–169. IEEE, December 2008.

[PDF | IEEE | ACM]**B. Brandenburg**and J. Anderson, “An Implementation of the PCP, SRP, D-PCP, M-PCP, and FMLP Real-Time Synchronization Protocols in LITMUS^{RT}”,*Proceedings of the 14th IEEE International Conference on Embedded and Real-Time Computing Systems and Applications (RTCSA 2008)*, pp. 185–194. IEEE, August 2008. Note: The extended version of the paper contains the blocking term analysis of the FMLP under partitioned static-priority scheduling.

[PDF | PDF (extended) | IEEE | ACM]- A. Block,
**B. Brandenburg**, J. Anderson, and S. Quint, “An Adaptive Framework for Multiprocessor Real-Time Systems”,*Proceedings of the 20th Euromicro Conference on Real-Time Systems (ECRTS 2008)*, pp. 23–33. IEEE, July 2008.

[PDF | IEEE | ACM] **B. Brandenburg**, J. Calandrino, A. Block, H. Leontyev, and J. Anderson, “Real-Time Synchronization on Multiprocessors: To Block or Not to Block, to Suspend or Spin?”,*Proceedings of the 14th IEEE Real-Time and Embedded Technology and Applications Symposium (RTAS 2008)*, pp. 342–353. IEEE, April 2008.

[PDF | IEEE | ACM]- A. Block, H. Leontyev,
**B. Brandenburg**, and J. Anderson, “A Flexible Real-Time Locking Protocol for Multiprocessors”,*Proceedings of the 13th IEEE International Conference on Embedded and Real-Time Computing Systems and Applications (RTCSA 2007)*, pp. 47–57. IEEE, August 2007.

[PDF | IEEE | ACM] **B. Brandenburg**and J. Anderson, “Feather-Trace: A Light-Weight Event Tracing Toolkit”,*Proceedings of the Third International Workshop on Operating Systems Platforms for Embedded Real-Time Applications (OSPERT 2007)*, pp. 19–28. National ICT Australia, July 2007.

[PDF | Proceedings]**B. Brandenburg**and J. Anderson, “Integrating Hard/Soft Real-Time Tasks and Best-Effort Jobs on Multiprocessors”,*Proceedings of the 19th Euromicro Conference on Real-Time Systems (ECRTS 2007)*, pp. 61–70. IEEE, July 2007.

[PDF | IEEE | ACM]

- R. de Simone and
**B. Brandenburg**(Eds.),*Proceedings of the 13th ACM International Conference on Embedded Software (EMSOFT’17)*, Seoul, South Korea, October 16–18, 2017.

[Full papers (ACM DL) | WiP proceedings (ACM DL)] **B. Brandenburg**and R. Kaiser (Eds.),*Proceedings of the 11th Annual Workshop on Operating Systems Platforms for Embedded Real-Time Applications (OSPERT 2015)*, Lund, Sweden, July 7, 2015.

[PDF]**B. Brandenburg**and S. Kato (Eds.),*Proceedings of the 10th Annual Workshop on Operating Systems Platforms for Embedded Real-Time Applications (OSPERT 2014)*, Madrid, Spain, July 8, 2014.

[PDF]**B. Brandenburg**(Ed.),*Proceedings of the Work-in-Progress Session of the 20th IEEE Real-Time and Embedded Technology and Applications Symposium (RTAS 2014)*, Berlin, Germany, April 15, 2014.

[PDF]

**B. Brandenburg**, “Augmenting Criticality-Monotonic Scheduling with Dynamic Processor Affinities”,*Dagstuhl Reports*, Volume 5, Issue 3, pp. 124–126. Schloss Dagstuhl–Leibniz-Zentrum fuer Informatik, 2015.

[PDF | Full Report]**B. Brandenburg**and J. Anderson, “A Clarification of Link-Based Global Scheduling”, technical report, MPI-SWS-2014–007, November 2014.

[PDF]- M. Vanga, F. Cerqueira,
**B. Brandenburg**, A. Lyons, and G. Heiser, “FlaRe: Efficient Capability Semantics for Timely Processor Access”, manuscript, October 2013.

[PDF] **B. Brandenburg**, “A Note on Blocking Optimality in Distributed Real-Time Locking Protocols”, manuscript, April 2013.

Note: this manuscript has been superseded by the LITES’14 journal paper Blocking Optimality in Distributed Real-Time Locking Protocols.

[PDF]**B. Brandenburg**and A. Bastoni, “The Case for Migratory Priority Inheritance in Linux: Bounded Priority Inversions on Multiprocessors”,*Proceedings of the 14th Real-Time Linux Workshop (RTLWS 2012)*, pp. 67–86. Real-Time Linux Foundation, October 2012.

[PDF | slides | prototype]**B. Brandenburg**, “Virtually Exclusive Resources”, technical report, MPI-SWS-2012–005, May 2012.

[PDF]**B. Brandenburg**and J. Anderson, “Joint Opportunities for Real-Time Linux and Real-Time Systems Research”,*Proceedings of the 11th Real-Time Linux Workshop (RTLWS 2009)*, pp. 19–30. Real-Time Linux Foundation, September 2009.

[PDF | Proceedings]**B. Brandenburg**, A. Block, J. Calandrino, U. Devi, H. Leontyev, and J. Anderson, “LITMUS^{RT}: A Status Report”,*Proceedings of the 9th Real-Time Linux Workshop (RTLWS 2007)*, pp. 107–123. Real-Time Linux Foundation, November 2007.

[PDF | Program]